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Biotechnology Assignment Help

The term 'Biotechnology' is a combination of two words- 'bio' and 'technology'. Bio is an abbreviated version of the term biology which is an important area that falls within the ambit of the field of science whereas technology is a term which is related to the totally opposite field of science, i.e., engineering. But this was the way of thinking of people almost a decade ago when science and technology were considered as two extreme ends and were definitely not expected to be an inter- related and an inter- dependent fields. Although this inter- dependency between the two fields were in existence since ages but the field of biotechnology had made this inter- relation between science and technology much clearer and visible.

Further, besides science and technology, the field of biotechnology also includes the fundamentals of business management besides a clear understanding of the skills related to entrepreneurship. Together, the fields of science and technology along with the existence of knowledge of business management and the much-developed skills of entrepreneurship enables the full and total exploitation of technological advancements that existed in the competitive environment of the present era. And the existence of these skills are of immense importance for the overall development of budding entrepreneurs interested to build a career in the field of biotechnology in future .

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Concept of Biotechnology -

Since the field of biotechnology is of recent origin, there have been a continuous researches going on for the further development of the said field. So, for the students focusing on pursuing this field of biotechnology as a subject for their higher studies, it is quite essential that they must know what biotechnology is all about, what to expect from a course in the said field, how to develop oneself for the challenges in the field and how to it is of immense importance as far as a career in biotechnology is concerned.

Another major area to be focused on is whether the students have an interest for both the fields- science and technology- since an in- depth knowledge of both these subjects is necessary to smoothly move ahead in building a strong foundation for a great career. Every such aspect is discussed in the following paragraphs so that a clear picture is being framed in the minds of the students before taking a final decision whether to opt for biotechnology as a career option or not. Read on...!!!

Meaning of the Term 'Biotechnology' -

The term biotechnology, as defined in Wikipedia, refers to the process wherein the living systems and organisms are being used to develop or make products. Further, Article 2 of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity defines the term 'biotechnology' as any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use.

Therefore, it can be said that biotechnology is a broad discipline that involves the use of technology to exploit various biological processes, organisms, cells or the cellular components with the main aim of developing new products for the betterment of society at large or for the modification of the existing products to remove the deficiencies or to overcome the inefficiencies of these existing products.

Importance of the Field of Biotechnology-

The field of biotechnology, as mentioned earlier, is a relatively new field but still has managed to gain immense popularity due to the fact that it so beautifully combine the effects of science, technology and business management along with the inclusion of entrepreneurship skills to fully ensure a successful career in the field of biotechnology.

The present era, often termed as technologically- advanced era, is working really hard to reach the great heights of advancements in technology related to the life and the living organisms as a whole and this explains the importance of existence and development of a field like biotechnology. Greatest contributions in the field of medical sciences are the gifts offered to it by the field of biotechnology. Hence, students who want to have an inquisitive insight into the realms of ocean known as life and work on knowing the unknown are appropriately suited for a field like this. Only if they have the zeal and the passion to deal with situations like the one mentioned above, they can surely proceed ahead to pursue their dream career in biotechnology.

Importance of the Field of Biotechnology

Fields and Sub- Fields of Biotechnology -
Biochemistry

The term 'biochemistry or biological chemistry', as defined in Wikipedia, means the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. This is an extremely interesting area to work on since it involves the study of various biochemical processes which are responsible for the controlling of information flow and the flow of chemical energy, thereby, leading to the complexity of life. Information flow is controlled through biochemical signalling while metabolism is responsible for the flow of chemical energy. This field of biotechnology, i.e., biochemistry, is closely related to another prominent field of biotechnology named as molecular biology. In fact, molecular biology can be viewed as one of the branches of biochemistry. In other words, it can be said that biochemistry can be viewed as a tool which is used to perform the investigation of molecular biology and thereby enabling an in-depth study of molecular biology.

Molecular Biology

The next field of biotechnology that is to be considered now is termed as molecular biology. As already mentioned earlier, molecular biology can be viewed as one of the branches of biochemistry. Molecular biology is concerned with the study of biological activity at molecular level. It also includes the interactions among DNA (abbreviated form of Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid), RNA (abbreviated form of Ribo Nucleic Acid) and proteins. Besides this, the field of molecular biology also covers the aspect of biosynthesis as of these interactions well as the regulation of such interactions. Molecular biology performs a very important role in the understanding the aspect of forming, acting and regulating the various parts of cells so as to efficiently use them for the purpose of targeting some new drugs or for diagnosing the diseases or to understand the cell's physiology. There are various techniques involved in the process of molecular biology some of which are molecular cloning, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), gel electrophoresis, macromolecule blotting, microarrays, allele-specific oligonucleotide, antiquated technologies, etc.

Cell Biology

Cell biology, often referred to as cytology, is the next field to be studied in biotechnology. Cell biology is basically a yet another branch of biology that is involved in the study of various types of structures of the cells and the functions performed by these cells. In the subject of cell biology, emphasis is mainly laid on the statement that cells are the basic units of the life of any organism. Cell biology, therefore, consists of structure of cells, the components/ organelles of the cell, organisation of these organelles within a cell, the physiological properties of these organelles, various metabolic processes, the signalling pathways, their life cycle, their interactions with their environment, etc. Cell biology is a very vast area where all the above listed activities (and many other activities as well) are carried on for the purpose of which various researches are being undertaken on a continuous basis and such researches are mainly concerned with genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, immunology, developmental biology, etc.

Biodiversity

Biodiversity, often used as an abbreviation for biological diversity is a field of biochemistry which is related to the different types of life that exist on the planet Earth and the variations these life forms exhibit when compared with the other life forms. In other words, it can be said that biodiversity is an aspect that focuses on the study of variations that exists among the organisms. Biodiversity is characterised by the following:-

  • The variations that exist are of different types such as genetic variations, variations that existed within an ecosystem or variations among the species, etc.
  • There does not exist an even distribution of biodiversity on Earth.
  • Biodiversity is a very important component of nature.
  • Survival of human species is ensured due to the existence of biodiversity.
  • Climatic conditions play a significant role in deciding the richness of biodiversity. Environmental changes are responsible for mass extinction.
  • Biodiversity includes both flora (i.e., all plant species when taken together) and fauna (i.e., all animal species when taken together).
  • Biodiversity has both, positive and negative, impact human health in more ways than one.
  • 2011-2020 has been designated as the United Nations Decade on Biodiversity by United Nations.
Physiology

The term "Physiology" is derived from two Greek words- 'physis' meaning nature or origin and 'logia' meaning study of. Therefore, physiology refers to the study of origin of organisms on planet Earth or the nature of these organisms. It is a sub- discipline of biology but also a very important field of biotechnology.

Further, this field of physiology focuses on the aspect of various physical or chemical functions of the organisms, their organ systems, organs, cells or biomolecules that have an existence in the living system. This field of physiology is of great importance due to the fact that Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences recognises the significant achievements that are made by the scientists in this field/ discipline of physiology by awarding these scientists the Noble Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

Physiology can be categorized into various branches or sub- disciplines on certain basis. These sub- disciplines or branches are mentioned below along with the basis of such categorization:-

  • On the basis of taxa (i.e. taxonomy) studied:- It can be classified into animal physiology ( also includes human physiology), plant physiology, microbial physiology, bacterial physiology, viral physiology, etc.
  • On the basis of level of organization:- It can be classified as cell physiology, molecular physiology, systems physiology, organismal physiology, ecological physiology, integrative physiology, etc.
  • On the basis of the process that causes physiological variation:- Physiology can be divided into developmental physiology, environmental physiology, evolutionary physiology, etc.
  • On the basis of final goals of the research:- It can be classified into two parts, namely, applied physiology (e.g. medical physiology, etc.), non- applied physiology (e.g. comparative physiology, etc.)
Biomedical Science

The next in the line of fields of biotechnology is biomedical science which is basically a part of applied science on which both natural science and formal science is applicable. This field is mainly focussed on the development of knowledge, interventions or various kinds of technology to be used in the area of healthcare services for the purpose of public health. It includes the following disciplines within its ambit medical microbiology, clinical virology, clinical epidemiology, genetic epidemiology, biomedical engineering, pathophysiology, etc. Biomedical science plays a significant role in the area of healthcare services. It includes various specialization in the field of healthcare science that can be grouped into the following main three sub- heads specialists in life sciences (analytical toxicology, anatomical pathology, cervical cytology, clinical biochemistry, clinical embryology, clinical immunology, haematology, etc.); specialists in physiological science (cardiac physiology, clinical perfusion, critical care science, neurophysiology, urology, vascular science, ophthalmic and vision science, autonomic neurovascular function, respiratory and sleep physiology, etc.); specialists in bioengineering (biomechanical engineering, biomedical engineering, clinical engineering, clinical measurement, diagnostic radiology including MRI, equipment management, medical electronics, nuclear medicine, radiotherapy physics, rehabilitation engineering, ultrasound, etc.

Ecology and ecosystem-

Ecology, in simple terms, is referred to the study of environment which involves the scientific analysis or the study of interactions that exists among the organisms and their surrounding environment. Ecology is mainly an inter- disciplinary field that covers biology, geography and earth science within its wide area. There exists a close relation among evolutionary biology, genetics and ethology. Ecosystem is defined as the group of living organisms which is comprised of producers, consumers and decomposers. Ecosystem consists of a network of interactions that exists among the organisms and their surrounding environment. Various processes within the ecosystem are production, energy flow, decomposition, nutrient cycling, biodiversity, ecosystem goods and services, and ecosystem management.

DNA Sequencing

The process by which the order of nucleotides can be determined in a molecule of DNA is termed as DNA sequencing. There exists four types of nucleotide- adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine. The process of DNA sequence is a technique which covers within its ambit the technology used or method adopted to determine the sequence or order of these four nucleotides (i.e., adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine).

This process of DNA sequencing is playing a very prominent role in the processes of various biological researches and in various other fields such as medical diagnosis, biotechnology, forensic biology, virology, and biological systematic. The following methods can be used for carrying out the process of DNA sequencing which can be categorised into basic methods, advanced methods and de- novo sequencing and next generation methods like Maxam- Gilbert sequencing and Chain- termination method. Advanced method like Shotgun sequencing, and Bridge PCR. Next generation methods like Massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS), Polony sequencing, 454pyrosequencing, DNA nanoball sequencing, etc.

Spectrophotometry

The term 'spectrophotometry', as mentioned in Wikipedia, refers to the process of quantitative measurement of the reflection or transmission properties of a material as a function of wavelength. This process includes the visible light, near- ultraviolet and near- infrared and the time- resolved techniques of spectroscopy are not covered within this area. This process of spectrophotometry is used in the fields like physics, material science, chemistry, biochemistry, molecular biology, etc. The areas/ industries in which this process of spectrophotometry works includes semiconductors, laser and optical manufacturing, printing and forensic examination, and labs for study of chemical substances.

Stem Cells

As per the words of Wikipedia, stem cells are the undifferentiated biological cells that can be differentiated into specialised cells. These cells can produce more stem cells by the process of mitosis which is one of the methods for the purpose of division of cells, the other being meosis. The process of mitosis takes place in multi- cellular organisms. These stem cells are characterised by the following:-

  • They have self- renewal properties due to the existence of obligatory asymmetric replication and stochastic differentiation.
  • Another aspect of stem cells is of potency which enables the process of differentiation potential of the stem cells. It includes the study of various terms such as totipotent (or omnipotent), pluripotent, multipotent, oligopotent and unipotent.
  • The most important characteristic feature of stem cell is the identification of the chances for regeneration of tissues from these stem cells.

NAH for Biotechnology Assignment Help

The subject of biotechnology is a very complex one involving the study of various fields that play an important role in the development of science and technology by leaps and bounds. Therefore, the students are required to have crystal clarity in the subject. But even in situations where it is difficult for students to have a clear understanding of the concepts, there is no need to panic because need assignment offers the biotechnology assignment help to its students across the globe at minimal price, guaranteeing the content of the same and submission of the same within time deadline. We are the most efficient and trust- worthy online assignment help services providers that offers its services to its clients 24x7 ensuring them to provide an expert guidance to the students, all over the world, at every step.

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